Question Wording: Government Policy

This page presents question wordings for graphics on the “Government Policy” page. Question wording was sometimes slightly different in different years.  Experiments have shown no significant difference between results obtained with these different wordings, unless otherwise specified.

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believed That the U.S. Government Should Limit the Amount of Greenhouse Gas Emissions That U.S. Businesses Can Produce

(1997-8, 2009, Jun-2010) “Some people believe that the United States government should limit the amount of air pollution that U.S. businesses can produce.  Other people believe that the government should not limit air pollution from U.S. businesses.  What about you?  Do you think the government should or should not limit air pollution from U.S. businesses?

(Nov 2010) [random half of sample] “As you may have heard, greenhouse gases are thought to cause global warming. In your opinion do you think the government should or should not limit the amount of greenhouse gasses that U.S. businesses put out?”

(Nov 2010) [other half of sample] “Some people believe that the United States government should limit the amount of air pollution that U.S. businesses can produce. Other people believe that the government should not limit air pollution from U.S. businesses. What about you? Do you think the government should or should not limit air pollution from U.S. businesses?”

(2012, 2013, 2015, 2018, 2020) “As you may have heard, greenhouse gases are thought to cause global warming. In your opinion do you think the government should or should not limit the amount of greenhouse gasses that U.S. businesses put out?”

  • Because Yeager and Krosnick (2012) (Yeager, D. S., & Krosnick , J. A. (2012). Does mentioning “some people” and “other people” in an opinion question improve measurement quality? Public Opinion Quarterly 76, 131-141.) found that using the “Some people … Other people …” form of a question does not change the distribution of responses as compared to a more direct wording, we report together results using wordings with and without the “Some people … Other people …” approach.
  • An experiment in the June 2010 and November 2010 surveys showed that changing “air pollution” to “greenhouse gasses” in the question lowers the percentage of people in favor by 11 percentage points on average.  Therefore, to make the time series comparable, we subtracted 11 percentage points from the proportions in favor measured in 1997, 1998, and 2009, when the “air pollution” wording was used.
Graph: Percent of Americans Who Thought the Federal Government Should Require Companies to Pay Tax For Every Ton of Greenhouse Gasses They Emit 

(2015) [random half of respondents] “Do you think the federal government should or should not require companies to pay a tax to the government for every ton of greenhouse gases the companies put out?”

(2015) [other half of respondents] “Do you think the federal government should or should not require companies to pay a tax to the government for every ton of greenhouse gases the companies put out? All this tax money would be given to all Americans equally by reducing the amount of income taxes they pay.” 

(2018) “Some companies burn fuels like oil, coal and natural gas, which produce greenhouse gases. Do you think the federal government should or should not tax these companies on the amount of greenhouse gases they put out?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Thought the Government Should Charge Companies a Tax For Every Ton of Greenhouse Gases They Put Out

(2020) [random quarter of respondents] When companies burn oil, coal, and natural gas, they put greenhouse gases into the air. The federal government can charge these companies a tax for every ton of greenhouse gases they put out. This will cause the companies to put out less greenhouse gases. The companies may pass along this cost to the public, by charging higher prices for some of the things people buy. Do you think the government should or should not charge companies this tax?

(2020) [random other quarter of respondents] When companies burn oil, coal, and natural gas, they put greenhouse gases into the air. The federal government can charge these companies a tax for every ton of greenhouse gases they put out. This will cause the companies to put out less greenhouse gases. The companies may pass along this cost to the public, by charging higher prices for some of the things people buy. The government will give the money from the companies back to all American adults and children, divided equally. If each person would get $800 on average next year, and the amount would get bigger each year after that, ALL RESPONDENTS: do you think the government should or should not charge companies this tax?

(2020) [random other quarter of respondents] When companies burn oil, coal, and natural gas, they put greenhouse gases into the air. The federal government can charge these companies a tax for every ton of greenhouse gases they put out. This will cause the companies to put out less greenhouse gases. The companies may pass along this cost to the public, by charging higher prices for some of the things people buy. The government will give the money from the companies back to all American adults and children, divided equally. If each person would get $600 on average next year, and the amount would get bigger each year after that, do you think the government should or should not charge companies this tax?

(2020) [random other quarter of respondents] When companies burn oil, coal, and natural gas, they put greenhouse gases into the air. The federal government can charge these companies a tax for every ton of greenhouse gases they put out. This will cause the companies to put out less greenhouse gases. The companies may pass along this cost to the public, by charging higher prices for some of the things people buy. The government will give the money from the companies back to all American adults and children, divided equally. If each person would get $200 on average next year, and the amount would get bigger each year after that, do you think the government should or should not charge companies this tax?

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Thought the Federal Government Should Require Companies to Pay Tax For Every Ton of Greenhouse Gasses They Emit From Imported Coal, Natural Gas and Oil

(2015) [random half of respondents] “Do you think the federal government should or should not require companies to pay a tax to the government for every ton of greenhouse gases that will be put out by coal, natural gas, and oil the companies bring into the U.S. from other countries?”

(2015) [other half of respondents] “Do you think the federal government should or should not require companies to pay a tax to the government for every ton of greenhouse gases that will be put out by coal, natural gas, and oil the companies bring into the U.S. from other countries? All this tax money would be given to all Americans equally by reducing the amount of income taxes they pay.”

(2018) “How about if a company imports its oil, coal or natural gas from another country? Do you think the federal government should or should not tax these companies on the amount of greenhouse gases they put out using fuel from other countries?”

Graph: Americans’ Opinions About the Paris Accord

(2018) “Before Trump withdrew from the global warming agreement, the United States said it would try to cut the amount of greenhouse gases it produces by about 25 percent from its 2005 level. Do you think the United States should or should not try to make these cuts?”

(2018) “Do you support or oppose Trump’s decision to withdraw from the main international agreement that tries to address global warming?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believed That The U.S. Government Should Either Require or Give Tax Breaks to Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Power Plants

(2006-2010) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law, encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely.”

(2013-2014) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely (random half of subsample will also include: “Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”)

(2013-2014) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2018, 2020) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)
“Building cars that use less gasoline?

Building cars that run completely on electricity?

Building air conditioners, refrigerators, and other appliances that use less electricity?

Building new homes and offices that use less energy for heating and cooling?

Lowering the amount of greenhouse gases that power plants are allowed to release into the air?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believed That The U.S. Government Should Give Tax Breaks to Reduce Pollution from Burning Coal

(2006-2010) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government doing it.”

(2006-2010) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015, 2018, 2020) “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)

“Increasing taxes on electricity so people use less of it?

Increasing taxes on gasoline so people either drive less, or buy cars that use less gas?

Giving companies tax breaks to build nuclear power plants?

Giving companies tax breaks to produce more electricity from water, wind, and solar power?

Giving tax breaks to companies that burn coal to make electricity if they use new methods to reduce the air pollution being released from their smokestacks?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Favored the Federal Government Charging Power Companies a Carbon Tax 

(2009) [random half of sample] “Do you favor or oppose the federal government charging power companies an extra tax for each ton of air pollution they put out that many scientists think causes global warming?”

(2009) [other half of sample] “Do you favor or oppose the federal government charging power companies an extra tax for each ton of air pollution they put out that many scientists think causes global warming and return the extra tax money equally to all Americans?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Favored the Federal Government Charging Individuals a Carbon Tax 

(2009) “Do you favor or oppose the federal government increasing the cost of items people buy from countries that do not control the air pollution scientists think causes global warming?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Favored a Cap and Trade Policy When Told That Economists Say it is Likely to Lead to the Most Cost-Efficient Greenhouse Gas Reduction Method

(2013) [random third of respondents] There’s a proposed system called ‘cap-and-trade.’ The government would issue permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that did not use all their permits could sell them to other companies. Companies that need more permits can buy them, or these companies can pay money to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that other people or organizations put out. Economists say that this system is likely to cause companies to figure out the cheapest way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Would you favor or oppose a cap-and-trade system to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that companies put out?

(2015) [random half of respondents] There’s a proposed system called ‘cap-and-trade.’ The government would issue permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that did not use all their permits could sell them to other companies. Companies that need more permits can buy them, or these companies can pay money to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that other people or organizations put out. Economists say that this system is likely to cause companies to figure out the cheapest way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Would you favor or oppose a cap-and-trade system to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that companies put out?

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Favored a Cap and Dividend Policy

(2013) [random third of respondents] There’s a proposed system called “cap and trade.” The government would sell permits to companies limiting the amount of greenhouse gases they can put out.  Companies that do not use all their permits could sell them to other companies. Companies that need more permits can buy them, or these companies can pay money to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that other people or organizations put out.  Economists say that this system is likely to cause companies to figure out the cheapest way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  The money the government makes from selling the permits would be returned to all Americans equally by reducing the amount of income taxes they pay.  Would you favor or oppose this cap and trade system?

(2015) [random half of respondents] There’s a proposed system called “cap and trade.” The government would sell permits to companies limiting the amount of greenhouse gases they can put out.  Companies that do not use all their permits could sell them to other companies. Companies that need more permits can buy them, or these companies can pay money to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that other people or organizations put out.  Economists say that this system is likely to cause companies to figure out the cheapest way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  The money the government makes from selling the permits would be returned to all Americans equally by reducing the amount of income taxes they pay.  Would you favor or oppose this cap and trade system?

(2020) There’s a proposed system called “cap and trade.” The government would sell permits to companies limiting the amount of greenhouse gases they can put out.  Companies that do not use all their permits could sell them to other companies. Companies that need more permits can buy them, or these companies can pay money to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that other people or organizations put out.  Economists say that this system is likely to cause companies to figure out the cheapest way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  The money the government makes from selling the permits would be returned to all Americans equally by reducing the amount of income taxes they pay.  Would you favor or oppose this cap and trade system?

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Favored a Cap and Trade Policy (June 2010)

(June 2010) [random half of respondents] “There’s a proposed system called “cap and trade.” The government would issue permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that did not use all their permits could sell them to other companies. Companies that need more permits can buy them, or these companies can pay money to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that other people or organizations put out. This will cause companies to figure out the cheapest way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Would you favor or oppose this system?”

(June 2010) [other half of respondents] “There’s a proposed system called “cap and trade.” The government would issue permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that did not use all their permits could sell them to other companies. Companies that need more permits can buy them, or these companies can pay money to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that other people or organizations put out. This will cause companies to figure out the cheapest way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This type of permit system has worked successfully in the past to reduce the air pollution that companies put out. For example, in 1990, the federal government passed a law like this, called the Clean Air Act, which caused companies to put out a lot less of the air pollution that causes acid rain. Would you favor or oppose a cap and trade system to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that companies put out?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Favored a Cap and Trade Policy (2013)

(2013) [random third of respondents] “There’s a proposed system called “cap and trade.” The government would issue permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can put out. Companies that did not use all their permits could sell them to other companies. Companies that need more permits can buy them, or these companies can pay money to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that other people or organizations put out. This will cause companies to figure out the cheapest way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Would you favor or oppose a cap and trade system to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that companies put out?”

(2013) [another random third of respondents] “There’s a proposed system called “cap and trade.” The government would give permits to companies limiting the amount of greenhouse gases they can put out. Companies that do not use all their permits could sell them to other companies. Companies that need more permits can buy them, or these companies can pay money to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that other people or organizations put out. Economists say that this system is likely to cause companies to figure out the cheapest way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Would you favor or oppose this cap and trade system?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Supported A Cap and Trade Program That Significantly Lowered Greenhouse Gases

(2008) “What if a cap and trade program significantly lowered greenhouse gases but raised your monthly electrical bill by 10 dollars a month – in that case would you support or oppose it?”

(2008) “What if a cap and trade program significantly lowered greenhouse gases but raised your monthly electrical bill by 25 dollars a month – in that case would you support or oppose it?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believed That The U.S. Government Should Either Require or Give Tax Breaks to Construct More Efficient Cars

(2006-2010) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law, encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely.”

(2013-2014) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely (random half of subsample will also include: “Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”)

(2013-2014) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2018, 2020) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)
“Building cars that use less gasoline?

Building cars that run completely on electricity?

Building air conditioners, refrigerators, and other appliances that use less electricity?

Building new homes and offices that use less energy for heating and cooling?

Lowering the amount of greenhouse gases that power plants are allowed to release into the air?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Favored Stricter Governmental Fuel Efficiency Standards For Cars

(2008) “Do you think the federal government should or should not make fuel efficiency standards for cars stricter than they are now?”

(2018) “Do you think the federal government should or should not require that cars and light trucks manufactured after 2025 get an average of 55 miles per gallon?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believed That The U.S. Government Should Require or Give Tax Breaks to Have More Energy Efficient Buildings

(2006-2010) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law, encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely.”

(2013-2014) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely (random half of subsample will also include: “Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”)

(2013-2014) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2018, 2020) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)
“Building cars that use less gasoline?

Building cars that run completely on electricity?

Building air conditioners, refrigerators, and other appliances that use less electricity?

Building new homes and offices that use less energy for heating and cooling?

Lowering the amount of greenhouse gases that power plants are allowed to release into the air?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believed That The U.S. Government Should Require or Give Tax Breaks to Develop More Energy Efficient Appliances

(2006-2010) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law, encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely.”

(2013-2014) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely (random half of subsample will also include: “Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”)

(2013-2014) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2018, 2020) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)
“Building cars that use less gasoline?
Building cars that run completely on electricity?
Building air conditioners, refrigerators, and other appliances that use less electricity?
Building new homes and offices that use less energy for heating and cooling?
Lowering the amount of greenhouse gases that power plants are allowed to release into the air?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believed That The U.S. Government Should Require or Give Tax Breaks to Construct All-Electric Vehicles

(2006-2010) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law, encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely.”

(2013-2014) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely (random half of subsample will also include: “Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”)

(2013-2014) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2018) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2018)
“Building cars that use less gasoline?

Building cars that run completely on electricity?

Building air conditioners, refrigerators, and other appliances that use less electricity?

Building new homes and offices that use less energy for heating and cooling?

Lowering the amount of greenhouse gases that power plants are allowed to release into the air?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believed That The U.S. Government Should Give Companies Tax Breaks To Produce Electricity From Water, Wind, and Solar Power

(2006-2010) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government doing it.”

(2006-2010) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015, 2020) “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)

“Increasing taxes on electricity so people use less of it?

Increasing taxes on gasoline so people either drive less, or buy cars that use less gas?

Giving companies tax breaks to build nuclear power plants?

Giving companies tax breaks to produce more electricity from water, wind, and solar power?

Giving tax breaks to companies that burn coal to make electricity if they use new methods to reduce the air pollution being released from their smokestacks?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Thought the Government Should Continue Current Tax Reductions For Energy Companies

(2013) “In recent years, the federal government has reduced the amount of taxes paid by companies that make electricity from sunlight, wind, and water. Do you think these tax reductions should be continued in the future, or should they be stopped?”

(2013) “For many years, the federal government has reduced the amount of taxes that natural gas companies have paid. Do you think these tax reductions should be continued in the future, or should they be stopped?”

(2013) “For many years, the federal government has reduced the amount of taxes that oil companies have paid. Do you think these tax reductions should be continued in the future, or should they be stopped?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Thought the Federal Government Should Increase Taxes On Profits Earned By Oil Companies

(2008) “Do you think the federal government should or should not increase taxes on the profits earned by oil companies?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believed The U.S. Government Should Require All Power Companies To Make At Least 20% Of Their Electricity From Water, Wind, or Solar Power

(2010) “Do you think the U.S. government should or should not require all power companies to make at least 20% of their electricity from water, wind, or solar power?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believed The Government Should Pay Part Of the Cost For People to Put Solar Panels On Their Homes

(2013) “Do you think the government should or should not pay part of the cost for people to put solar panels on their homes, to encourage people to buy these panels and make some of their electricity from sunlight?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believed That the U.S. Government Should Give Tax Breaks To Companies to Build Nuclear Power Plants

(2006-2010) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government doing it.”

(2006-2010) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015, 2018, 2020) “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)

“Increasing taxes on electricity so people use less of it?

Increasing taxes on gasoline so people either drive less, or buy cars that use less gas?

Giving companies tax breaks to build nuclear power plants?

Giving companies tax breaks to produce more electricity from water, wind, and solar power?

Giving tax breaks to companies that burn coal to make electricity if they use new methods to reduce the air pollution being released from their smokestacks?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believed That The U.S. Government Should Increase Taxes on Gasoline

(2006-2010) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government doing it.”

(2006-2010) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015, 2018, 2020) “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)

“Increasing taxes on electricity so people use less of it?

Increasing taxes on gasoline so people either drive less, or buy cars that use less gas?

Giving companies tax breaks to build nuclear power plants?

Giving companies tax breaks to produce more electricity from water, wind, and solar power?

Giving tax breaks to companies that burn coal to make electricity if they use new methods to reduce the air pollution being released from their smokestacks?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believed That The U.S. Government Should Increase Taxes on Electricity

(2006-2010) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government doing it.”

(2006-2010) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015, 2018, 2020) “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)

“Increasing taxes on electricity so people use less of it?

Increasing taxes on gasoline so people either drive less, or buy cars that use less gas?

Giving companies tax breaks to build nuclear power plants?

Giving companies tax breaks to produce more electricity from water, wind, and solar power?

Giving tax breaks to companies that burn coal to make electricity if they use new methods to reduce the air pollution being released from their smokestacks?”

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believed the Federal Stimulus Packages Should Include Creating New Jobs and New Technologies to Reduce Future Warming

(2020) This past March, the U.S. Congress decided to spend 2 trillion dollars of government money to help American businesses and workers get through the current economic crisis.  The Congress is now considering spending more money for this purpose. Some of that money could go to creating jobs and new technologies to reduce future global warming. Do you think that the government should or should not do that?

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believed The Stimulus Packages Should Include Planting Large Numbers of Trees to Absorb and Store Greenhouse Gases

(2020) Do you think the government should or should not spend money planting large numbers of trees to absorb and store greenhouse gases?

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Believed the Stimulus Packages Should Include Helping Invent New Ways of Making Electricity that Put Out Less Greenhouse Gases

(2020) Do you think the government should or should not spend money helping invent new ways of making electricity that put out less greenhouse gases?

Graph: Percent of Americans Who Favored the Government Spending Money During the Economic Crisis on Helping Companies…

(2020) Do you think the government should or should not spend money helping companies to make more cars and trucks that run only on electricity?

(2020) Do you think the government should or should not spend money helping companies to install new equipment in parking spots around the country for charging cars and trucks that run only on electricity?

(2020) Do you think the government should or should not spend money helping companies to strengthen oil and gas pipelines to reduce leaking and pollution?

(2020) Do you think the government should or should not spend money helping companies to make batteries that are smaller and last longer?

(2020) Do you think the government should or should not spend money helping invent new ways of making electricity that put out less greenhouse gases?

Graph: Percentage of Americans Who Support Various Policies Implemented by the Obama Administration That the Trump Administration Rolled Back or Attempted to Roll Back

This graphs was made by combining the results of four different survey questions. 

First Question:

(2020) [random quarter of respondents] In 2015, the United States signed an agreement with 192 other countries to try to reduce the amount of greenhouse gasses they put out. The United States said that by the year 2025, its greenhouse gasses will be 25% less than were put out in 2005.  If the U.S. does not succeed in doing this, there will be no penalty.   Do you think the U.S. should or should not continue to try to do this?

Second Question: 

(2020) [random quarter of respondents] Do you think that the federal government should or should not require that by ten years from now, power plants in America must put out 30% less greenhouse gases than they did in 2005?

Third Question:

(2020) [random quarter of respondents] Do you think that by five years from now, the federal government should or should not be required to put out 40% less greenhouse gasses than it did in 2015?

Fourth Question:

(2020) [random fifth of respondents] Do you think that beginning in the year 2025, the federal government should or should not require that all new cars and trucks made in the United States must get at least 55 miles per gallon of gasoline?

Graph: Predictors of Support for Policies Given a Presidential Association (August 2020)

This graph used data from multiple versions of four different survey questions.

First Question:

(2020) [random quarter of respondents] In 2015, the United States signed an agreement with 192 other countries to try to reduce the amount of greenhouse gasses they put out. The United States said that by the year 2025, its greenhouse gasses will be 25% less than were put out in 2005.  If the U.S. does not succeed in doing this, there will be no penalty.   Do you think the U.S. should or should not continue to try to do this?

(2020) [random other quarter of respondents] When he was president, Barack Obama signed an agreement with 192 other countries to try to reduce the amount of greenhouse gasses they put out. The United States said that by the year 2025, its greenhouse gasses will be 25% less than were put out in 2005.  If the U.S. does not succeed in doing this, there will be no penalty.   Do you think the U.S. should or should not continue to try to do this?

(2020) [random other quarter of respondents] Last year, President Trump announced that United States will withdraw from an agreement it signed in 2015 with 192 other countries.  The countries committed to try to reduce the amount of greenhouse gasses they put out. The United States said that by the year 2025, its greenhouse gasses will be 25% less than were put out in 2005.  If the U.S. does not succeed in doing this, there will be no penalty.   Do you think the U.S. should or should not withdraw from the agreement?

(2020) [random other quarter of respondents] When he was president, Barack Obama signed an agreement with 192 other countries to try to reduce the amount of greenhouse gasses they put out. The United States said that by the year 2025, its greenhouse gasses will be 25% less than were put out in 2005.  If the U.S. does not succeed in doing this, there will be no penalty.   Last year, President Trump announced that United States will withdraw from the agreement. Do you think the U.S. should or should not withdraw from the agreement?

Second Question:

(2020) [random quarter of respondents] Do you think that the federal government should or should not require that by ten years from now, power plants in America must put out 30% less greenhouse gases than they did in 2005?

(2020) [random other quarter of respondents] When he was president, Barack Obama issued a rule requiring that by ten years from now, power plants in America must put out 30% less greenhouse gases than they did in 2005.  Do you think the federal government should or should not require this?

(2020) [random other quarter of respondents] Last year, President Trump cancelled a government rule requiring that by ten years from now, power plants in America must put out 30% less greenhouse gases than they did in 2005.  Do you think that that rule should or should not have been cancelled?

(2020) [random other quarter of respondents] When he was president, Barack Obama issued a rule requiring that by ten years from now, power plants in America must put out 30% less greenhouse gases than they did in 2005.  Last year, President Trump cancelled that rule.  Do you think that that rule should or should not have been cancelled?

Third Question:

(2020) [random quarter of respondents] Do you think that by five years from now, the federal government should or should not be required to put out 40% less greenhouse gasses than it did in 2015?

(2020) [random other quarter of respondents] When he was president, Barack Obama issued a rule that by five years from now, the federal government must put out 40% less greenhouses gases than it did in 2015. Do you think the federal government should or should not do this?

(2020) [random other quarter of respondents] Last year, President Trump cancelled a government rule requiring that by five years from now, the federal government must put out 40% less greenhouses gases than it did in 2015. Do you think that that rule should or should not have been cancelled?

(2020) [random other quarter of respondents] When he was president, Barack Obama issued a rule that by five years from now, the federal government must put out 40% less greenhouses gases than it did in 2015. Last year, President Trump cancelled that rule.  Do you think that that rule should or should not have been cancelled?

Fourth Question:

(2020) [random fifth of respondents] Do you think that beginning in the year 2025, the federal government should or should not require that all new cars and trucks made in the United States must get at least 55 miles per gallon of gasoline?

(2020) [random other fifth of respondents] Do you think that beginning in the year 2025, the federal government should or should not require that all new cars and trucks made in the United States must get at least 40 miles per gallon of gasoline?

(2020) [random fifth of respondents] When he was president, Barack Obama issued a federal rule requiring that, beginning in the year 2025, all new cars and trucks made in the United States must get at least 55 miles per gallon of gasoline.  Do you think the federal government should or should not require this?

(2020) [random other fifth of respondents] This year, President Trump issued a federal rule requiring that, beginning in the year 2025, all new cars and trucks made in the United States must get at least 40 miles per gallon of gasoline.  Do you think the federal government should or should not require this?

(2020) [random other fifth of respondents] When he was president, Barack Obama issued a federal rule requiring that, beginning in the year 2025, all new cars and trucks made in the United States must get at least 55 miles per gallon of gasoline.  Last month, President Trump lowered the requirement, so cars and trucks must get at least 40 miles per gallon of gasoline.  Do you think that President Trump should or should not lower the requirement?