Question Wording: Partisan Views (2020 Version) – Draft & Private

Question wordings for the graphics on the “Partisan Views” page.

Graph: Proportion of American Adults Who Identified Themselves as Democrats, Republicans, and Independents

(1997-8, 2006-10, 2012-15, 2018, 2020) “Generally speaking, do you usually think of yourself as: a Democrat, a Republican, an Independent, or what?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans and Independents Who Believed That the World’s Temperature has Been Increasing Over the Past 100 Years

(1997-1998, 2006-2011) “You may have heard about the idea that the world’s temperature may have been going up slowly over the past 100 years. What is your personal opinion on this? Do you think this has probably been happening, or do you think it probably hasn’t been happening?”

(2012) [random half of sample] “What is your personal opinion? Do you think that the world’s temperature probably has been going up slowly over the past 100 years, or do you think this probably has not been happening?”

(2012) [other half of sample] “What is your personal opinion? Do you think that the world’s temperature probably has been going up over the past 100 years, or do you think this probably has not been happening?”

(2013, 2015, 2018, 2020) “What is your personal opinion? Do you think that the world’s temperature probably has been going up over the past 100 years, or do you think this probably has not been happening?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Believed That the Increase in the World’s Temperature Over the Past 100 Years was Caused Mostly or Partly by Humans

(1997-8) “Now I’d like to ask you what you think might cause global warming. [for those who did not think global warming was happening include “I realized that you don’t expect global warming to happen, but I would like to ask you what you think might cause it.”] Some people have told us that global warming would be brought about mostly by things people do. Others have said that global warming would be brought about mostly by what nature does itself. Still others think that people and nature would play about equal roles in causing global warming. Which of these views is closest to yours?”

(2006-2011) [for those who answered global warming has been happening] “Do you think a rise in the world’s temperature is being caused mostly by things people do, mostly by natural causes, or about equally by things people do and by natural causes?”

(2006-2011) [for those who answered global warming has not been happening] “Assuming it’s happening, do you think a rise in the world’s temperature would be caused mostly by things people do, mostly by natural causes, or about equally by things people do and by natural causes?”

(2012-2013) [for those who answered global warming has been happening] “Do you think that the increase in the world’s temperature over the past 100 years was caused mostly by things people did, mostly by natural causes, or about equally by things people did and by natural causes?”

(2012-2013) [for those who answered global warming has not been happening] “If the world’s temperature did increase over the past 100 years, do you think this increase was caused mostly by things people did, mostly by natural causes, or about equally by things people did and by natural causes?”

(2014-2020) [for those who answered global warming has been happening] “If the world’s temperature did increase over the past 100 years, do you think this increase was caused mostly by things people did, mostly by natural causes, or about equally by things people did and by natural causes?”

(2014-2020) [for those who answered global warming has not been happening] “Assuming it’s happening, do you think a rise in the world’s temperature would have been caused mostly by things people do, mostly by natural causes, or about equally by things people do and by natural causes?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Believed the World’s Temperature Will Probably Go Up in the Next 100 Years

(1997-8, 2010) “If nothing is done to prevent it, do you think the world’s temperature probably will go up over the next 100 years, or do you think the world’s temperature probably will not go up over the next 100 years?”

(2012) [random half of sample] “If nothing is done to prevent it, do you think the world’s temperature probably will go up slowly over the next 100 years, or do you think the world’s temperature probably will not go up slowly over the next 100 years?”

(2012) [other half of sample] “If nothing is done to prevent it, do you think the world’s temperature probably will go up over the next 100 years, or do you think the world’s temperature probably will not go up over the next 100 years?”

(2013, 2015, 2018, 2020) “If nothing is done to prevent it, do you think the world’s temperature probably will go up over the next 100 years, or do you think the world’s temperature probably will not go up over the next 100 years?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Thought 5-Degree Warming in 75 Years Would Be Bad

(1997-8, 2006-2010) “Scientists use the term “global warming” to refer to the idea that the world’s average temperature may be about five degrees Fahrenheit higher in 75 years than it is now. Overall, would you say that if the world’s average temperature is five degrees Fahrenheit higher in 75 years than it is now, would that be good, bad, or neither good nor bad?”

(1997-8, 2006-2010) [for respondents who answered “neither good nor bad”] “Do you lean toward thinking it would be good, lean toward thinking it would be bad, or don’t you lean either way?” 

(2012, 2013, 2015, 2018, 2020) “If the world’s average temperature is about five degrees Fahrenheit higher 75 years from now than it is now, overall, would you say that would be good, bad, or neither good nor bad?”

(2012, 2013, 2015, 2018, 2020) [for respondents who answered “neither good nor bad”] “Do you lean toward thinking it would be good, lean toward thinking it would be bad, or don’t you lean either way?”

(2012, 2013, 2015, 2018, 2020) [for respondents who answered “bad”] “Would you say it would be very bad or somewhat bad?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Thought Global Warming Will Be a Very Serious or Somewhat Serious Problem for the United States

(2006-2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2018, 2020) [for respondents who answered that global warming is happening] “If nothing is done to reduce global warming in the future, how serious of a problem do you think it will be for THE UNITED STATES – very serious, somewhat serious, not so serious, or not serious at all?”

(2006-2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2018, 2020) [for respondents who answered global warming is not happening]  “Assuming it’s happening, if nothing is done to reduce global warming in the future, how serious of a problem do you think it would be for THE UNITED STATES – very serious, somewhat serious, not so serious, or not serious at all?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Thought Global Warming Will Be a Very Serious or Somewhat Serious Problem for the World

(2006-2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2018, 2020) [for respondents who answered global warming is happening] “If nothing is done to reduce global warming in the future, how serious of a problem do you think it will be for THE WORLD – very serious, somewhat serious, not so serious, or not serious at all?”

(2006-2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2018, 2020) [for respondents who answered global warming is not happening] “Assuming it’s happening, if nothing is done to reduce global warming in the future, how serious of a problem do you think it would be for THE WORLD – very serious, somewhat serious, not so serious, or not serious at all?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Believed The U.S. Government Should Do More Than It Is Now Doing About Global Warming

Note: to create this graphic, we compared the answer of the first question to the answer of the second question.

First question

(1997-8) “Now, I’d like to ask you who you feel is responsible for doing something to deal with global warming. There are a number of possible groups of people who could do something, including the U.S. government, governments in other countries around the world, businesses, and average people. I’m going to ask you questions about how much each of these groups should do about global warming. First, how much do you think the U.S. government should do about global warming? A great deal, quite a bit, some, a little, or nothing?”

(2009-2012) “How much do you think the U.S. government should do about global warming? A great deal, quite a bit, some, a little, or nothing?”

(2013-2014) “How much do you think the U.S. government should do about global warming – a great deal, a lot, a moderate amount, a little, or nothing?”

(2015) [random half of sample] “How much do you think the U.S. government should do about global warming – a great deal, a lot, a moderate amount, a little, or nothing?”

(2015) [other half of sample] “How much do you think the U.S. government should do about global warming – a great deal, quite a bit, some, a little, or nothing?”

(2018, 2020) “How much do you think the U.S. government should do about global warming – a great deal, a lot, a moderate amount, a little, or nothing?”

Second question

(1997-8, 2009-2012) “How much do you think the U.S. government is doing now to deal with global warming? A great deal, quite a bit, some, a little, or nothing?”

(2013) “How much do you think the U.S. government is doing now to deal with global warming – a great deal, a lot, a moderate amount, a little, or nothing?”

(2015) [random half of sample] “How much do you think the U.S. government is doing now to deal with global warming – a great deal, a lot, a moderate amount, a little, or nothing?”

(2015) [other half of sample] “How much do you think the U.S. government is doing now to deal with global warming – a great deal, quite a bit, some, a little, or nothing?”

(2018, 2020) “How much do you think the U.S. government is doing now to deal with global warming – a great deal, a lot, a moderate amount, a little, or nothing?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Believed Governments in Other Countries Should Do More Than They Are Now Doing About Global Warming

Note: to create this graphic, we compared the answer of the first question to the answer of the second question.

First question

(1997-8) “Now, I’d like to ask you who you feel is responsible for doing something to deal with global warming. There are a number of possible groups of people who could do something, including the U.S. government, governments in other countries around the world, businesses, and average people. I’m going to ask you questions about how much each of these groups should do about global warming. First, how much do you think the U.S. government should do about global warming? A great deal, quite a bit, some, a little, or nothing?”

(2009-2010) “How much do you think governments in other countries should do about global warming? A great deal, quite a bit, some, a little, or nothing?”

(2018, 2020) “How much do you think governments in other countries should do about global warming – a great deal, a lot, a moderate amount, a little, or nothing?”

Second question

(1997-8, 2009-2010) “How much do you think governments in other countries are doing now to deal with global warming? A great deal, quite a bit, some, a little, or nothing?”

(2018, 2020) “How much do you think governments in other countries are doing now to deal with global warming – a great deal, a lot, a moderate amount, a little, or nothing?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Believed U.S. Businesses Should Do More Than They Are Now Doing About Global Warming

Note: to create this graphic, we compared the answer of the first question to the answer of the second question.

First question

(1997, 1998, 2009, 2010) “Now, I’d like to ask you who you feel is responsible for doing something to deal with global warming. There are a number of possible groups of people who could do something, including the U.S. government, governments in other countries around the world, businesses, and average people. I’m going to ask you questions about how much each of these groups should do about global warming. First, how much do you think the U.S. government should do about global warming? A great deal, quite a bit, some, a little, or nothing?”

(2012, 2013, 2015, 2018, 2020) “How much do you think U.S. businesses should do about global warming – a great deal, a lot, a moderate amount, a little, or nothing?”

Second question

(1997-8, 2009-2010, 2015) “How much do you think U.S. businesses are doing about global warming? A great deal, quite a bit, some, a little, or nothing?”

(2012, 2013, 2018, 2020) “How much do you think U.S. businesses are doing now to deal with global warming – a great deal, a lot, a moderate amount, a little, or nothing?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Believed Average People Should Do More Than They Are Now Doing About Global Warming

Note: to create this graphic, we compared the answer of the first question to the answer of the second question.

First question

(1997, 1998, 2009, 2010) “Now, I’d like to ask you who you feel is responsible for doing something to deal with global warming. There are a number of possible groups of people who could do something, including the U.S. government, governments in other countries around the world, businesses, and average people. I’m going to ask you questions about how much each of these groups should do about global warming. First, how much do you think average people should do about global warming? A great deal, quite a bit, some, a little, or nothing?”

(2013, 2015, 2018, 2020) “How much do you think average people should do about global warming – a great deal, a lot, a moderate amount, a little, or nothing?”

Second question

(1997, 1998, 2009, 2010, 2015) “How much do you think average people are doing now to deal with global warming? A great deal, quite a bit, some, a little, or nothing?”

(2013, 2018, 2020) “How much do you think average people are doing now to deal with global warming? A great deal, a lot, a moderate amount, a little, or nothing?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Thought the Federal Government Should Limit the Amount of Greenhouse Gas U.S. Businesses Emit

(1997-8, 2009, Jun-2010) “Some people believe that the United States government should limit the amount of air pollution that U.S. businesses can produce.  Other people believe that the government should not limit air pollution from U.S. businesses.  What about you?  Do you think the government should or should not limit air pollution from U.S. businesses?

(Nov 2010) [random half of sample] “As you may have heard, greenhouse gases are thought to cause global warming. In your opinion do you think the government should or should not limit the amount of greenhouse gasses that U.S. businesses put out?”

(Nov 2010) [other half of sample] “Some people believe that the United States government should limit the amount of air pollution that U.S. businesses can produce. Other people believe that the government should not limit air pollution from U.S. businesses. What about you? Do you think the government should or should not limit air pollution from U.S. businesses?”

(2012, 2013, 2015, 2018, 2020) “As you may have heard, greenhouse gases are thought to cause global warming. In your opinion do you think the government should or should not limit the amount of greenhouse gasses that U.S. businesses put out?”

  • Because Yeager and Krosnick (2012) (Yeager, D. S., & Krosnick , J. A. (2012). Does mentioning “some people” and “other people” in an opinion question improve measurement quality? Public Opinion Quarterly 76, 131-141.) found that using the “Some people … Other people …” form of a question does not change the distribution of responses as compared to a more direct wording, we report together results using wordings with and without the “Some people … Other people …” approach.
  • An experiment in the June 2010 and November 2010 surveys showed that changing “air pollution” to “greenhouse gasses” in the question lowers the percentage of people in favor by 11 percentage points on average.  Therefore, to make the time series comparable, we subtracted 11 percentage points from the proportions in favor measured in 1997, 1998, and 2009, when the “air pollution” wording was used.
Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republican, and Independents Who Thought The United States Should Take Action About Global Warming Even If Other Major Industrial Countries Do Less

(2008) “Do you think the United States should take action on global warming only if other major industrial countries such as China and India agree to do equally effective things, or should the United States take action even if these other countries do less?”

(2010, 2012, 2013, 2015) “Do you think the United States should take action on global warming only if other major industrial countries such as China and India agree to do equally effective things, that the United States should take action even if these other countries do less, or that the United States should not take action on this at all?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Favor The Federal Government Giving Companies Tax Breaks To Produce More Electricity From Water, Wind, and Solar Power

(2006-2010) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government doing it.”

(2006-2010) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015, 2018, 2020) “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)

“Increasing taxes on electricity so people use less of it?

Increasing taxes on gasoline so people either drive less, or buy cars that use less gas?

Giving companies tax breaks to build nuclear power plants?

Giving companies tax breaks to produce more electricity from water, wind, and solar power?

Giving tax breaks to companies that burn coal to make electricity if they use new methods to reduce the air pollution being released from their smokestacks?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Thought The Government Should Require by Law or Encourage With Tax Breaks in Lowering the Amount of Greenhouse Gas Emissions That Power Plants Emit

(2006-2010) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law, encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely.”

(2013-2014) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely (random half of subsample will also include: “Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”)

(2013-2014) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2018, 2020) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)
“Building cars that use less gasoline?

Building cars that run completely on electricity?

Building air conditioners, refrigerators, and other appliances that use less electricity?

Building new homes and offices that use less energy for heating and cooling?

Lowering the amount of greenhouse gases that power plants are allowed to release into the air?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Thought the Government Should Require by Law or Encourage with Tax Breaks in Building Cars That Use Less Gasoline

(2006-2010) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law, encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely.”

(2013-2014) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely (random half of subsample will also include: “Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”)

(2013-2014) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2018, 2020) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)
“Building cars that use less gasoline?

Building cars that run completely on electricity?

Building air conditioners, refrigerators, and other appliances that use less electricity?

Building new homes and offices that use less energy for heating and cooling?

Lowering the amount of greenhouse gases that power plants are allowed to release into the air?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Thought The Government Should Require by Law or Encourage With Tax Breaks in Making More Energy Efficient Buildings

(2006-2010) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law, encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely.”

(2013-2014) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely (random half of subsample will also include: “Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”)

(2013-2014) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2018, 2020) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)
“Building cars that use less gasoline?

Building cars that run completely on electricity?

Building air conditioners, refrigerators, and other appliances that use less electricity?

Building new homes and offices that use less energy for heating and cooling?

Lowering the amount of greenhouse gases that power plants are allowed to release into the air?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Thought The Government Should Require by Law or Encourage With Tax Breaks in Making More Energy Efficient Appliances

(2006-2010) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law, encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely.”

(2013-2014) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely (random half of subsample will also include: “Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”)

(2013-2014) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2018, 2020) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)
“Building cars that use less gasoline?

Building cars that run completely on electricity?

Building air conditioners, refrigerators, and other appliances that use less electricity?

Building new homes and offices that use less energy for heating and cooling?

Lowering the amount of greenhouse gases that power plants are allowed to release into the air?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Thought the Government Should Require by Law or Encourage With Tax Breaks in Building Cars That Run Completely on Electricity

(2006-2010) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law, encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely.”

(2013-2014) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely (random half of subsample will also include: “Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”)

(2013-2014) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [random half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015) [other half of sample] “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2018) “For the next items, please tell me for each one whether it’s something the government should require by law to try to reduce future global warming, should encourage with tax breaks but not require, or stay out of entirely. Each of these changes could increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2018)
“Building cars that use less gasoline?

Building cars that run completely on electricity?

Building air conditioners, refrigerators, and other appliances that use less electricity?

Building new homes and offices that use less energy for heating and cooling?

Lowering the amount of greenhouse gases that power plants are allowed to release into the air?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents, Who Favored the Federal Government Giving Tax Breaks to Companies That Burn Coal to Make Electricity if They Use New Methods to Reduce the Air Pollution

(2006-2010) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government doing it.”

(2006-2010) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015, 2018, 2020) “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)

“Increasing taxes on electricity so people use less of it?

Increasing taxes on gasoline so people either drive less, or buy cars that use less gas?

Giving companies tax breaks to build nuclear power plants?

Giving companies tax breaks to produce more electricity from water, wind, and solar power?

Giving tax breaks to companies that burn coal to make electricity if they use new methods to reduce the air pollution being released from their smokestacks?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Favored the Federal Government Giving Tax Breaks To Build Nuclear Power Plants

(2006-2010) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government doing it.”

(2006-2010) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015, 2018, 2020) “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)

“Increasing taxes on electricity so people use less of it?

Increasing taxes on gasoline so people either drive less, or buy cars that use less gas?

Giving companies tax breaks to build nuclear power plants?

Giving companies tax breaks to produce more electricity from water, wind, and solar power?

Giving tax breaks to companies that burn coal to make electricity if they use new methods to reduce the air pollution being released from their smokestacks?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Favor The Federal Government Increasing Taxes on Gasoline

(2006-2010) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government doing it.”

(2006-2010) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015, 2018, 2020) “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)

“Increasing taxes on electricity so people use less of it?

Increasing taxes on gasoline so people either drive less, or buy cars that use less gas?

Giving companies tax breaks to build nuclear power plants?

Giving companies tax breaks to produce more electricity from water, wind, and solar power?

Giving tax breaks to companies that burn coal to make electricity if they use new methods to reduce the air pollution being released from their smokestacks?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Favor The Federal Government Increasing Taxes on Electricity

(2006-2010) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government doing it.”

(2006-2010) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [random half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming.”

(2012) [other half of sample] “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2015, 2018, 2020) “For each of the following, please tell me whether you favor or oppose it as a way for the federal government to try to reduce future global warming. Each of these changes would increase the amount of money that you pay for things you buy.”

(2006-2020)

“Increasing taxes on electricity so people use less of it?

Increasing taxes on gasoline so people either drive less, or buy cars that use less gas?

Giving companies tax breaks to build nuclear power plants?

Giving companies tax breaks to produce more electricity from water, wind, and solar power?

Giving tax breaks to companies that burn coal to make electricity if they use new methods to reduce the air pollution being released from their smokestacks?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Thought Global Warming is Extremely Important to Them Personally

(1997-8, 2006-2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2018, 2020) “How important is the issue of global warming to you personally – extremely important, very important, somewhat important, not too important, or not at all important?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Thought That They Know a Lot or a Moderate Amount About Global Warming

(1997-98) “People tell us that they know a lot about some issues, but very little about others. How much do you feel you know about global warming? A lot, a moderate amount, a little, or nothing?”

(2006-2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2018, 2020) “How much do you feel you know about global warming – a lot, a moderate amount, a little, or nothing?”

Graph: Proportion of Democrats, Republicans, and Independents Who Trust Things Scientists Say About the Environment Completely, a Lot, or a Moderate Amount

(2006-2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2018, 2020) “How much do you trust the things that scientists say about the environment – completely, a lot, a moderate amount, a little, or not at all?”

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